Appointed by the new president, Thomas Jefferson, in 1801, he needed to ensure that the economy flourished while following the dictates of his party, which insisted on less control by the federal government and the country’s financial elite. Encyclopedia of World Biography. Gallatin's opinions were highly respected on a national level and his last pamphlet, Suggestions on the Banks and Currency of the Several United States, was well received. Gallatin served for eight years under President Thomas Jefferson (1743–1826; served 1801–9; see entry in volume 1) and then for four more years under President James Madison (1751–1836; served 1809–17; see entry in volume 2). Pennsylvanians elected him to the U.S. Senate in 1793, but Gallatin was denied his seat, ostensibly because he had not been a U.S. citizen for nine years. IF YOU WANT TO HELP: For information about how to donate to Albert Gallatin Human Services Agency, please call 724-583-7822. Robert Morris was born in Liverpool, England. Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. He settled on a rented farm in Fayette County, Pennsylvania, and opened a small store and office in preparation for the expected land rush. In November 1793, Gallatin married Hannah Nicholson, a New York socialite, and returned home to Friendship Hill. Why The Whiskey Rebellion Was Important Sources The Whiskey Rebellion was a 1794 uprising of farmers and distillers in western Pennsylvania … At the age of eighty-seven, Gallatin experienced health problems and became bedridden. His greatest contribution came in the field of public finance. In the tedious discussions that followed, Gallatin played the leading role, preserving peace among his colleagues and establishing an enviable reputation as a diplomat. Gallatin plunged into business and public life after emigrating to the New World at age 19. Western Politics . Gallatin County, Illinois Gallatin County Education, Geography, and History. Gallatin, by contrast, realized that in order for the U.S. economy to expand in a way that benefited the most people, some federal programs were necessary. American Eras. Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. L. B. Kuppenheimer, Albert Gallatin’s Vision of Democratic Stability: An Interpretive Profile (Westport, Conn.: Praeger, 1996); D. W. Meinig, The Shaping of America: A Geographical Perspective on 500 Years of History, Volume 2: Continental America, 1800–1867 (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1993), pp. His wife Hannah died in May 1849, and the shock of his wife's death weakened Gallatin even further. Born January 29, 1761 (Geneva, Switzerland), U.S. secretary of the treasury, congressman, diplomat. He remained in the public eye as a leader in the areas of fiscal responsibility and free trade (limited government regulation), constantly warning against speculation (high risk investments) and debt. In the winter of 1789, Gallatin was elected as a delegate to the Pennsylvania state convention, which rewrote the state constitution. Pennsylvania Historical and MuseumCommission.http://www.phmc.state.pa.us/ppet/gallatin/page1.asp?secid=31 (accessed on August 13, 2005). Adams, Henry. After signing the treaty, Gallatin traveled to Geneva to visit his native land after a thirty-five year absence, and he remained in Europe throughout 1815 in order to assist U.S. minister to England John Quincy Adams (1767–1848) and Speaker of the House Henry Clay (1777–1852; see entry in volume 1) in negotiating a new trade agreement with Great Britain. Although few people in his party supported the renewal of the national bank, he insisted that this institution, which had both public and private investors, could help stabilize the economy without harming the people of the United States. He became president of New York University's council in 1830. As secretary of the Treasury, Gallatin stressed simplicity in government and termination of the public debt. Albert Gallatin RC ( DLC ); undated; endorsed by TJ as received from the Treasury Department on 13 Apr. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. New York: Macmillan, 1957. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list. In order to pay his bills, Gallatin taught French as a resident tutor at Harvard College, but he continued searching for the means to earn his fortune. The Senate ruled against him, and Gallatin returned to Pennsylvania, where the new excise tax on whiskey stills had stirred up the rioting known as the Whiskey Rebellion. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. Encyclopedia.com. The Committee on Ways and Means retained its control over all taxes and revenue measures collected to pay the debts of the United States. Retrieved December 21, 2020 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/history/news-wires-white-papers-and-books/gallatin-albert-1761-1849-0. Gallatin also remained active in a variety of intellectual and charitable activities throughout his life. However, the turmoil caused by the growing French Revolution in his native city and his heavy investments in frontier real estate kept Gallatin in America. Named for U.S. Secretary of the Treasury Albert Gallatin, the city was established on the Cumberland River and made the county seat of Sumner County in 1802. ." Albert graduated in 1779; the following year, just weeks short of his nineteenth birthday, he boarded a ship for America in search of his fortune. Albert Gallatin was the fourth U.S. secretary of the treasury, serving from 1801 until 1814. D- He instituted an increased police presence to enforce the Sedition Acts. Alexander I (1777–1825), the Russian tsar (national leader), had offered to help the discussions get started. The U.S. House of Representatives is the larger of two houses composing the U.S. Congress. Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography. Using your favorite search engine, type whiskey rebellion as the search term and explore the many different websites. Yet Gallatin also accepted his Federalist opponents’ belief that the federal government needed to be involved in the economy. ." It was in public finance where he made his greatest contribution, however, ironically by promoting policies favored by the Federalists for both Pennsylvania and the nation. Gallatin’s vision included a nationwide transportation program, which he proposed to Congress in 1808, that was to be partially funded by the federal government. During the summer of 1794, he urged all citizens to peacefully submit to the tax in order to restore law and order in the state. The lack of a national bank made it difficult to raise the necessary loans and left the United States in a weak financial position. There are many websites available for the Whiskey Rebellion. Hamilton was proud of that system. He held this position longer than had any other secretary of the Treasury, serving from 1801 to 1814. The population was 30,278 at the 2010 census and 42,918 in 2019. “Drivers are making sure people are OK and not food insecure,” Dunham said. By publishing a number of reports and pamphlets, Gallatin kept the public aware of his views and activities. Secretary of the U.S. treasury, political leader He sold Friendship Hill to a Frenchman whom he had met in Paris. Because he had supported them in the past, the crowd listened to Gallatin’s pleas for moderation, and he helped minimize the military conflict that followed. He became the Society's first president and published several more papers. It is located about 30.6 miles northeast of the state capital of Nashville, Tennessee. Gallatin did not support the tax, but he spoke out in favor of the need for it at various public gatherings. He unsuccessfully supported renewal of the charter of the Second Bank of the United States, but he was instrumental in obtaining the resumption of specie payments after their suspension following the economic panic of 1837. Nevertheless, in 1795 Gallatin returned to Congress as a member of the U.S. House of Representatives from Pennsylvania. American Eras. United States Department of the Treasury.http://www.treas.gov/offices/management/curator/collection (accessed on August 13, 2005). Abraham Alfonse Albert Gallatin, born de Gallatin (January 29, 1761 – August 12, 1849) was an American politician, diplomat, ethnologist and linguist. A aron Burr may have killed Alexander Hamilton, but it was Albert Gallatin who killed Hamilton’s system for funding federal deficits. He was returned to office in 1791 and again in 1792 with uncontested elections. His efforts were complicated by high military expenditures and the purchase of the Louisiana territory in 1803. Still, Gallatin’s 1808 plan anticipated such aspects of the Transportation Revolution as the Erie Canal, which facilitated the economic development and American settlement of the Trans-Appalachian West. However, the War of 1812 with England again forced the nation to raise taxes and increase government borrowing. Tradesm…, Morris, Robert (1734-1806) "Gallatin, Albert (1761-1849) by the same analogy : for TJ’s inclusion in the instructions of some of Gallatin’s geographical queries, see the notes to Document IV . However, he failed in his attempt to obtain a charter for the Bank of the United States. He believed that all Americans would benefit from this program. Gallatin and a friend arrived in Boston, Massachusetts, in July 1780 with a shipment of tea they hoped would produce a large profit for them. Despite overwhelming challenges, Gallatin was able to reduce the public debt by over $30 million by 1812. Refusing to deal through Russia, Great Britain expressed its willingness to proceed with direct negotiations, and commissioners from the two countries finally met at Ghent in August 1814. The following year, in 1824, Gallatin agreed to run as the vice presidential candidate on the Democratic-Republican ticket with the current secretary of the treasury, William H. Crawford (1772–1834). From 1795 until 1801, the House reappointed the Committee on Ways and Means to supervise the Fourth through the Sixth Congresses. Gallatin's public career ended with his final report relating to the Maine boundary dispute. After acquiring an education, Gallatin left for North America in the spring of 1780 and ended up in Pennsylvania, where he entered politics in 1788 as an Anti-Federalist (one who objected to certain features of the new Constitution). Gallatin laid the foundation for sound governmental fiscal (economic) policies that would guide the young nation for years to come. Listed in the tables below are the 102 NHLs outside Philadelphia. Albert Gallatin was born on 29 January 1761 into an aristocratic French family with a history of over four hundred years of leadership in the area around Geneva in what is now Switzerland. US Congressman, Presidential Cabinet Secretary. Originally, it held power over both taxes and spending. In 1789 he attended the Pennsylvania Constitutional Convention. Shaping of America, 1783-1815 Reference Library. When Madison asked Congress for a declaration of war, the national debt was higher than ever. The Whiskey Rebellion (also known as the Whiskey Insurrection) was a tax protest in the United States beginning in 1791 and ending in 1794 during the presidency of George Washington, ultimately under the command of American Revolutionary war veteran Major James McFarlane. Great Britain declined to negotiate through the Russians but agreed to talk directly with the U.S. delegates. First in state politics and then at the federal level, he advocated reforms sought by his western constituents which were at the heart of the policies of the Jeffersonian party of the 1790s. As the third secretary of the treasury, Albert Gallatin faced many obstacles. New York: Vantage Press, 1985. . . Albert Gallatin and James Madison worked to reestablish a legislative finance committee to monitor government taxes and spending. Gallatin, Albert ( 29 January 1761–13 August 1849 ), fourth secretary of the treasury and diplomat, was born Abraham Alfonse Albert Gallatin in Geneva, Switzerland, the son of Jean Gallatin, a merchant, and Sophie Albertine Rolaz du Rosey. "Committee on Ways and Means, History." U.S. secretary of the treasury, congressman, diplomat. As the nation's first secretary of the treasury under President George Washingto…, William McKinley During Albert's time at the Academy, his natural abilities and intelligence were recognized by several renowned scholars. Cite this article Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography. He also helped negotiate the Treaty of Ghent, ending the War of 1812 (1812–15). That intersection is being improved with widening, sidewalks, and a new mast-arm traffic signal. He supported the founding of a state bank, greater control over the currency, retirement of public debt, and greater accountability of the Treasury Department to the legislature. This article was most recently revised and updated by, https://www.britannica.com/biography/Albert-Gallatin, Federal Reserve History - Biography of Albert Gallatin, The First Amendment Encyclopedia - Biography of Albert Gallatin, U.S Department of the Treasury - Biography of Albert Gallatin, History Central - Biography of Albert Gallatin, Albert Gallatin - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up). Jefferson's Cabinet, Gallatin continued to serve as secretary of the treasury under President Madison. U.S. House of Representatives.http://waysandmeans.house.gov/legacy/history.htm (accessed on August 13, 2005). He married Hannah Nicholson in 1793, and they had two sons and three daughters. New York: AMS Press, 1972. Gallatin died in 1849 in Astoria, New York. Moreover, he followed his unique Gallatinian approach to domestic policy as well as international diplomacy, always in pursuit of one paramount objective: the preservation of individual liberty within the context of a republic. ." An open rebellion was growing against the federal excise tax that Congress had imposed on distilled spirits. James Monroe Albert Gallatin is considered one of the most influential men of the early American Republic, and one of the most prominent Swiss-Americans in U.S. history. He was also instrumental in obtaining a charter (government authorization) for the Bank of Pennsylvania which was created to help manage state finances. . Albert Gallatin was born on 12 January 1761 in the Swiss city of Geneva. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). Gallatin's role in settling the Whiskey Rebellion earned him the gratitude from the citizens of western Pennsylvania. "Albert Gallatin in Pennsylvania." Gallatin recommended that the First Bank of the United States be rechartered. Balinky, Alexander. "Albert Gallatin He also suggested that certain roads be constructed to connect the new cities within the West. A statue of Gallatin stands today in Washington, D.C., before the U.S. Treasury building. A young man of the age of the Enlightenment, he was sympathetic to the American Revolution and sailed for America in 1780, happy to be in "the freest country in the universe.". against greed and racism that followed the peace with Mexico among the U.S. settlers moving into the Southwest. Paul W. Glad "Albert Gallatin In 1782 he was appointed a tutor at Harvard College. Gallatin served in the Pennsylvania state legislature from 1790 to 1792. The delegates at Harrisburg met to consider proposed revisions to the U.S. Constitution that Pennsylvania ratified in December 1787. Later Career . Most people know something about the first four presidents, and they’ve now learned a bit about Alexander Hamilton. Need for Federal Programs . He entered the House of Representatives in 1795 and became the most knowledgeable Republican on public finance. 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